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Alice

WORLD WAR ONE CENTENARY

Candlelit vigil 100 years after the lamps went out on outbreak of WWI: Services held across country and schoolchildren to visit battlefields to mark Great War centenary

   Last candle to be extinguished at 11pm - exactly 100 years the moment 'lamps went out over Europe' as Britain went to war with Germany in 1914
   Services to be held in London, Glasgow and Belgium on 4 August 2014
   Pupils from every secondary schools to visit battlefields of Europe
   Four-year £50million programme of commemorations planned
   New logo launched for all events and groups marking the centenary

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/a...t-outbreak-WWI.html#ixzz2WDzhz3JF
Barbie

Thanks Alice
Alice

Captain Noel Chavasse was Medical Officer of the 10th (Liverpool Scottish) Battalion, the King's (Liverpool) Regiment, during the first three years of the First World War. He was the only man to win the British Military's highest award for valour, the Victoria Cross, twice during the Great War. Only two other men have achieved this honour, Captain Arthur Martin-Leake who won his first VC during the Anglo-Boer War in 1901 and his second in 1915 during the First World War, both men were in the Royal Army Medical Corp . The second of these men was Captain Charles Upham, a New Zealander serving with 20th Bn, 2nd NZEF (The Canterbury Regiment) who won his first VC as a Second Lieutenant in Crete between 22 and 30 May 1941 and his Bar on 14/15 July 1942 at El Ruweisat Ridge, Western Desert as a Captain. during the Second World War. There is a further connection between these three men that I will explain later.

http://www.chavasse.u-net.com/chavasse.html
Alice

A very brave man indeed!  RIP Noel Chavasse

Noel is buried in Brandhoek's New Military Cemetery. His grave (Plot 3, Grave B15) has had several memorials over the years, the current headstone was erected on 28th April 1981. It is the only headstone in the world to have two Victoria Crosses engraved on it. The inscription "Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends" was selected by his father. This cemetary is looked after by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission who do such a wonderful job in many countries of the world. Noel's medals were given on permanent loan to the Imperial War Museum in February 1990 in the presence of HM the Queen Mother, and they can be seen there in the Victoria and George Cross gallery.
brainbox

Great thread Alice, very interesting to read of this brave mans life in such detail.

here is the Noel Chevasse Monument in Abercrombie Square by Liverpool sculptor Tom Murphey
All V.C. holders , in excess of 20., with Liverpool connections, are commemorated also with their names enscribed around the base

His dads house was just out of shot to the right

Alice

brainbox wrote:
Great thread Alice, very interesting to read of this brave mans life in such detail.

here is the Noel Chevasse Monument in Abercrombie Square by Liverpool sculptor Tom Murphey
All V.C. holders , in excess of 20., with Liverpool connections, are commemorated also with their names enscribed around the base

His dads house was just out of shot to the right



Thanks B.B., that is a wonderful tribute to Noel Chavasse.  Nice to see some wreaths as well.
brainbox

Yes Alice its on the main thoroughfare through the University Campus so many visitors to our city ill be aware of the heroism of these brave men
Correction to the above pic text It was Fifteen other Liverpool VC holders who are commemorated on the statue, but there were many many more Holders of the Victoria Cross that had strong links with the city too.
Alice

brainbox wrote:
Yes Alice its on the main thoroughfare through the University Campus so many visitors to our city ill be aware of the heroism of these brave men
Correction to the above pic text It was Fifteen other Liverpool VC holders who are commemorated on the statue, but there were many many more Holders of the Victoria Cross that had strong links with the city too.


I was going to say that although it is in a very fitting place, perhaps more people would have seen it at the pier head.
brainbox

Alice wrote:
brainbox wrote:
Yes Alice its on the main thoroughfare through the University Campus so many visitors to our city ill be aware of the heroism of these brave men
Correction to the above pic text It was Fifteen other Liverpool VC holders who are commemorated on the statue, but there were many many more Holders of the Victoria Cross that had strong links with the city too.


I was going to say that although it is in a very fitting place, perhaps more people would have seen it at the pier head.


I think the location is fitting as it is sited just yards from the Family home
Tom Murphey has in fact sculptured many of the recent additions to the Pier Head collection of War Memorials  and very good they are too
Alice

It is beautiful B.B.
Barbie

Great interesting thread.  Cool
Alice

This is an interesting site and very informative.  

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.u...s/firstworldwar/battles/somme.htm
Alice

World War I people’s archive launched for Liverpool families of those who served.

The 1914-18 ‘war to end all wars’ claimed millions of lives on both sides – but behind every name carved on a gravestone or written on  a role of honour there is a person and a personal story.

Tens of thousands of those stories belong to Merseyside families whose loved ones fought in trenches, on the seas or the Home Front.

And now an interactive online ‘living archive’ is set to be created by historians at Liverpool John Moores University where people can tell the tales of bravery and sacrifice.

The project is being co-ordinated by war expert Prof Frank McDonough, along with colleagues Dr Mike Benbough-Jackson and Dr Emma Vickers.

http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/ne...-peoples-archive-launched-4389688
brainbox

Thats an interesting idea , thanks for the info Alice,memories are precious and if they can help others understand and provide a clearer picture into the past then it will be well worth the effort of participating in the project for the benefit of future generations.
Alice

Sir Thomas Basil Clarke, KBE was a war correspondent during the First World War and is regarded as the UK's first public relations professional.

He was born 1879 in Altrincham, the son of a Chemist.  He was educated at the University of Oxford and died in 1947.

At the outbreak of war, he was called down to London to represent the Daily Mail at the Press Bureau in London. In October 1914 he was ordered to try to get to Ostend before it was taken by the German Army. When he discovered that he was too late, he traveled to Europe anyway and managed to get to Dunkirk, where he stayed three months. He lived there as a fugitive because of a ban on war reporters at the Front during the early part of the war and was the first reporter to get into Ypres following the German destruction of it in November 1914.

He was forced to return to England in January 1915, the Daily Mail sent him on a tour of neutral countries to try to uncover their intentions. His time in Greece, Bulgaria and Romania did not yield any very useful information, though while there he did send back some vivid reports of fighting between the Austrian and Russian forces and on one occasion had to escape from Chernivtsi in the middle of the night when he woke to find it had been taken by Russian forces as he had slept.

He returned home to spend the rest of 1915 reporting on the impact of the war at home, including an article about the role of women in munitions factories, before causing a global scandal in January 1916 by accusing the Government of failing to enforce the blockade of Germany.

He then reported on the Easter Rising before leaving the Daily Mail after an argument with its news editor, Walter G Fish. He spent the last few months of 1916 as an accredited reporter at the Battle of the Somme, before publishing a memoir of his war experiences, which he called My Round of the War.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basil_Clarke

A new biography has been published giving a fascinating and often controversial views about the people of Liverpool.

http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/li...-sir-basil-clarkes-praise-4319280
Alice

Special commemorative paving stones will be laid in the home towns of all those in the United Kingdom awarded the Victoria Cross for valour "in the face of the enemy" during the conflict as part of efforts to mark the centenary of the Great War next year.

As part of centenary events, new measures to restore war memorials across the country have also been announced. Other plans include a programme of cultural events, candlelit vigils and a service of commemoration attended by Commonwealth leaders.

The centenary of Britain's entry into the war will be marked on August 4 next year with a service of commemoration at Glasgow Cathedral for Commonwealth leaders on the day after the closing ceremony of the Commonwealth Games.

On the same day, a ceremony will be held at the Commonwealth War Graves Commission St Symphorien Military Cemetery in Mons, Belgium, where men believed to be the first and last Commonwealth casualties of the war are buried.

A candlelit vigil will be held at Westminster Abbey at the end of the day with the last candle extinguished at 11pm - the moment war was declared. Other events include a programme allowing two pupils and one teacher from every state-funded secondary school in England to visit the battlefields of the Western Front.

http://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/...aving-stones-to-honour-WWI-heroes
Alice

Loads of photos on this site about the Ypres Battle of World War I

http://www.google.co.uk/search?q=...0CFkQsAQ&biw=1004&bih=594
Lizzie

This is such an interesting thread.......I am really enjoying reading the links
Alice

The St. James War Memorial Project

http://www.thewarmemorial.blogspot.co.uk/
Barbie

Thanks for all that Alice.
Alice

On the 6h September:

1914 - Battle of Marne; Germans prevented from occupying Paris

1917 - French pilot Georges Guynemer shoots down 54th German aircraft
Alice

On this day in 1916 - During the Battle of the Somme, in France, tanks were first used in warfare when the British rolled them onto the battlefields.
Alice

On this day in 1914 - Three British cruisers were sunk by one German submarine in the North Sea. 1,400 British sailors were killed. This event alerted the British to the effectiveness of the submarine.
Alice

On this day, 1st October 1918 - Damascus was captured from the Turks during World War I by a force made up of British and Arab forces.
Alice

An interesting BBC website of True Stories

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/
Barbie

Thanks Alice. Smile
Alice

On this day on the 8th October,

1915 - During World War I, the Battle of Loos concluded.

1918 - U.S. Corporal Alvin C. York almost single-handedly killed 25 German soldiers and captured 132 in the Argonne Forest in France. York had originally tried to avoid being drafted as a conscientious objector. After this event his was promoted to sergeant and was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
Alice

On the 9th October 1914 - During World War I, German forces captured Antwerp, Belgium.
Alice

On this day 12th October 1915 - British nurse Edith Cavell was executed by a German firing squad for helping Allied soldiers escape from Belgium during World War I.
Alice

On this day 14th October

1917 - The first U.S. soldiers entered combat during World War I near Nancy, France.
Alice

40 amazing World War facts

AS the guns finally fell silent at 11am, on November 11, 1918, Private George Edwin Ellison would go down in history as the last British solider to die in the First World War.

Having served four years on the Western Front the 40-year-old was killed at 9.30am, despite the armistice being signed at 5am.

He was one of a staggering 11,000 tragic souls who became casualties on the last day of the war, even though an end to the conflict had already been agreed.

Here, in the run up to Armistice Day and the 100th anniversary of the start of hostilities, we've put together 40 other incredible facts about the 1914-1918 war that was meant to end all wars...

http://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/441602/40-amazing-World-War-facts
Alice

An interesting article from the Sunday Express:

Legacy of the Cursed World War

WATCHING the s*n going down behind The Mall and St James’s Park, the Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey turned to a friend and remarked, “The lamps are going out all over Europe. We shall not see them again in our lifetime.”

http://www.express.co.uk/news/wor...24/Legacy-of-the-Cursed-World-War
brainbox

Thousands of people have signed an online petition calling for World War I nurse Edith Cavell to be commemorated on a new £2 coin instead of the now,much discredited Lord Kitchener...>

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-norfolk-25676858
Alice

brainbox wrote:
Thousands of people have signed an online petition calling for World War I nurse Edith Cavell to be commemorated on a new £2 coin instead of the now,much discredited Lord Kitchener...>

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-norfolk-25676858


It would be richly deserved and I hope it happens for a very brave lady!

There doesn't seem to be a link to the online petition unless I have missed it.
Alice

Royal Misfit who Caused the Great War

He was marrying the ravishingly pretty Princess Alexandra, whose father would soon become King Christian IX of Denmark and whose brother was about to be named King George I of Greece.

The Princess Diana of her day, Alexandra was already wildly popular with the British public and it was a dazzling ceremonial occasion.

The event also marked the first public appearance in Britain of the Queen's eldest grandson, four-yearold Prince Wilhelm of Prussia. His mother was Victoria's eldest daughter Vicky while his father Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm (known as Fritz) was heir to the Prussian throne.

Little Wilhelm was a page boy at the wedding but he did not acquit himself well. He was dressed in Highland costume, complete with kilt and toy dagger. When he became restless during the ceremony his uncle the 18-yearold Duke of Edinburgh told him to be quiet. At that point the defiant child drew his blade, threatened his uncle with it then bit him on the leg.

As a new two-part BBC documentary explains, it was to be the beginning of a long, tortured relationship between the future Kaiser of Germany and his British family that would help drag Europe into the abyss and cost 10 million lives in the First World War.

Wilhelm was born in January 1859 in a traumatic breech delivery that left him with a withered left arm. Disability was a badge of shame in fiercely militaristic Prussia and the boy was subjected to grotesque treatments in various bids to "cure" him. His right arm was strapped to his body in a vain attempt to force him to use the other one. When the imbalance in his neck muscles made his head twist, he was strapped into another restrictive machine.

http://www.express.co.uk/news/wor...l-misfit-who-caused-The-Great-War
brainbox

Thank Alice and your link was extremely interesting and imformative with a couple of really good quality Archive photos.

Here is a Youtube link to a short pice of footage of Basil Rathbone the famous Sherlock Holmes and Relative of the famous Liverpool Rathbones. In the 1957 Interview he relates his experience as an officer during WW1 in the trenches and his early participation in the deployment of the tactic of  Caouflage ...

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g2Fl8zYO9u8
Alice

The war that created Russia's bloody revolution

Even a novelist as gloomy as Tolstoy would hesitate to tell such a sad story. It began badly, it ended worse. At a banquet held in 1894 on Khodynka Field in Moscow to celebrate his coronation, 1,389 people were trampled to death. They had attended after rumours of lavish gifts; these turned out to be bits of bread and sausage. Twenty four years later, in July 1918, the last Romanov monarch was executed by Bolsheviks in a basement in Yekaterinburg.

His wife and five children died with him.

In between times, the Tsar's regime had careered from existential crisis to crisis, none bigger than the Great War he helped foment. The Tsar fondly imagined his army of 1.3million men would "steamroll" Prussian pretensions in Eastern Europe. To his dismay the "steamroller" turned out to be more of a rusty garden roller. His disillusioned, starving people threw in their lot with Lenin's Bolsheviks. The Tsar's murder was the postscript to the regime-changing October Revolution of 1917. Nothing in the Tsar's personality had equipped him to rule, let alone rule a country which rambled across the globe from Poland to the Pacific. Like his father, Alexander III, Nicholas II was a confirmed autocrat, blithely announcing: "I do what I wish and what I wish is good."

His principal pillar in preserving absolutism was the Okhrana, the secret police. Censorship was absolute, to the irritation of the intelligentsia, artists, students and professional middle classes.

Alas for Nicholas II, he did not inherit his father's iron will or his political shrewdness. Nicholas II preferred (and this is almost endearing) to play happy families rather than attend to affairs of the police state. When he was at his desk, his indecision was final. His impressionability was legendary. The most powerful man in Russia, the joke had it, was the last man to have spoken to the Tsar.

Make that the "last woman". He was under the thumb of his wife, Alexandra, who hailed from the insignificant German duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt. Her new position as Empress of all Russians went to her head. Writing in 1905 she opined: "The emperor, unfortunately, is weak, but I am not and I intend to be firm." The Lady Macbeth of Russia encouraged her husband's worst trait: His belief in a God-given right to rule.

http://www.express.co.uk/news/wor...reated-Russia-s-bloody-revolution
Alice

It was on the news today about Lizzie the Elephant who was seconded to do 'horse' work in Sheffield during WW1.  Most of the horses were need elsewhere and Lizzie did such vital work for the war effort.

http://www.nfa.dept.shef.ac.uk/jungle/index4d3.html
brainbox

Great Article about Lizzie . I wonder what did happen to her .
MOJO

Did anyone watch the 2 consecutive prog's, on the great war, the other night, with Max Hastings narrating? It seems that taking everything into account, war really was inevitable!
                                                  It also demonstrated that the germans had quite a vicious, cruel streak in them, then, and this was without, the influence of Hitler, the S.S. the Gestapo, etc, which are the stated reasons behind the atrocities of W.W.2. Makes you wonder!
brainbox

I saw only part of the first one MOJO  it was on quite late in the evening and I thought it was an excellent programme. Max Hastings did a much better job of it than the one Jeremy Paxton has done. I intend to try and see the Max Hastings programmes on  the 'I-player'  play it again thingy. I was also surprised and shocked to learn how aggressive and Barbaric the German Military and Government were during the years leading up to WW1.
Alice

Grow with pride: The reason we remember WWI with poppies

IN 1916 an American airman called James McConnell observed the Battle of Verdun from the sky. Although the carnage of North-east France looked weirdly still from that distance the overwhelming impression was one of devastation.

“Peaceful fields and farms and villages adorned that landscape a few months ago,” he wrote in his memoir Flying For France.

“Now there is only that sinister brown belt, a strip of murdered Nature. It seems to belong to another world. Every sign of humanity has been swept away. The woods and roads have vanished like chalk wiped from a blackboard, of the villages nothing remains but grey smears where stone walls have tumbled together.”

The destruction on all the First World War battlefields was total. Every account spoke of the sea of mud and the elimination of any distinguishing features in the landscape.

For troops in the trenches the only other living things they would encounter, apart from fellow soldiers, were rats, mice or lice.

But one miracle of nature did survive. The conditions perfectly suited an annual herb called papaver rhoeas, whose seeds can lie dormant in the soil for more than 80 years before germinating.

http://www.express.co.uk/news/wor...ason-we-remember-WWI-with-poppies
Barbie

I enjoyed reading that Alice. I adore poppies. Thanks.
Alice

The killing of Franz Ferdinand: A single shot that unleashed hell on earth

He was the teenage Bosnian Serb who, on that sunlit Sunday in June a century ago, dispatched to Heaven (or was it Hell?) Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne. A single bullet from his Browning FN 7.65mm pistol ruptured Ferdinand's carotid artery and triggered The Great War.

Today in Bosnia and other shattered remnants of the former Yugoslavia there are many who regard Princip as a national hero; the freedom-fighter, the little guy who fought back against the imperialist Hapsburgs, oppressors of the Serbs.

Princip is the pin-up boy of modern terrorists, the ultimate proof that a single assassin can alter the run of history.

Meanwhile some historians mark him as a patsy, the unwitting tool of Serbia, Russia or Germany. Princip himself confessed at his trial to being a "nationalist", yet also declaimed class-based anarchism.

http://www.express.co.uk/news/wor...shot-that-unleashed-hell-on-earth
Alice

Private WC Tickle and the boys of the First World War
HE was only 15 when he volunteered but the young face grinning out from a new stamp was just one of many underage soldiers who lied about their age to fight for their country

http://www.express.co.uk/news/wor...d-the-boys-of-the-First-World-War
Barbie

Fifteen....so proud to be a soldier of his country. They looked and acted older than today's youth. The feral youth of today act so hard but you know what, they'd pooh themselves in that situation!
R.I.P. brave soldier boy Tickle.
Alice

A MOTHER'S DAY TRIBUTE

Mother reunited at last with her First World War hero son
WITH Mother’s Day coming up this weekend, a heartbreaking story of a parent who made a secret pact to share her boy’s grave

On a chilly autumn afternoon in 1929 a chauffeur-driven car pulled into the Lijssenthoek military cemetery in Flanders. Head groundsman Walter Sutherland initially paid little attention as a finely dressed woman stepped out. More than a decade after the Great War such pilgrimages by grief-stricken widows and mothers were common.

Sutherland glanced up ready to direct the visitor to one of the 11,000 identical stone graves. Once there she would, like most who had preceded her, weep and lay flowers. However there was something about the woman’s purposeful stride and dry-eyed demeanour that alerted the worker that this was no ordinary mourner.

Introducing herself as Harriette Raphael the woman outlined her extraordinary proposal. She explained that she was the mother of Lieutenant John Raphael who had been killed at the Battle of Messines Ridge in Belgium in June 1917 and buried at Lijssenthoek.

Now in poor health her one remaining wish was to be laid to rest alongside her beloved only son. Mrs Raphael knew very well that military rules of the period strictly forbade such requests, explaining her decision to go directly to the gardener rather than making an official approach to the Imperial War Graves Commission.

http://www.express.co.uk/news/wor...with-her-First-World-War-hero-son
brainbox

What an emotion packed story, War destroys lives far beyond that of the fallen themselves.
Thanks for sharing the insight into that particular example,Alice.
Barbie

Thanks Alice.
Wars are so unnecessary and nobody is a real winner.
Alice

THE SEVEN BROTHERS SENT TO WAR

The elderly woman sitting on the railway bench was in deep distress. “My boys, my boys... where are my boys?” she muttered over and over again. When she failed to respond to the gentle enquiries of the station assistant he looked in her handbag to find some identification and instead found a letter from Buckingham Palace dated 1915.

With trembling hands he opened the envelope and read the following words written six years earlier: “Madam, I am commanded by the King to convey to you an expression of His Majesty’s appreciation of the patriotic spirit which has prompted your five sons to give their services at the present time to the British Armed Services.” It was then that he noticed four black velvet strips sewn on to the woman’s crepe jacket – mourning ribbons – each one representing the loss of a man. Seven of Elizabeth Cranston’s sons enlisted to fight in the First World War.

Four were killed, two were severely wounded and their youngest brother bore the scars of guilt and heartbreak for the rest of his life. Worst affected was Lizzie whose world fell apart as her beloved sons failed to return one by one from the battlefields of France and Belgium. Scotland has the highest casualty rate per head of population of the home nations that fought in the Great War but few families sacrificed as much as this proud hard-working family from Haddington, East Lothian, about 20 miles east of Edinburgh.

And there their story might have ended were it not for Lizzie’s great grandson Stuart Pearson whose grandmother was Lizzie’s daughter Agnes. He was determined to research his family’s incredible sacrifice and has now told their story in a new book titled Blood On The Thistle. “Lizzie’s surviving children did not talk about their experience because they did not want to address the issue,” says Stuart, 62, whose grandmother Agnes died the year before he was born.

http://www.express.co.uk/news/wor...lost-four-sons-in-First-World-War

To buy Blood On The Thistle by Stuart Pearson and Bob Mitchell, published by John Blake £17.99 with free P&P call 0871 988 8451. Visit expressbooks.co.uk or send a cheque/PO (payable to The Express) to: The Express Orders Dept, 1 Broadland Business Park, Norwich NR7 0WF
Alice

The gun shot that killed Franz Ferdinand launched the Great War and was felt worldwide

After days of rain, Sunday June 28, 1914, broke bright in Sarajevo. The only thing bluer than  the sky was the military tunic of Archduke Franz Ferdinand as he climbed into the Graf & Stift convertible at the town’s barracks.

It was a good day for the heir to the sprawling Austro-Hungarian Empire to conclude his visit to the province of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The s*n was bringing out the crowds; it was important to be seen, for a little imperial magic to be cast over the people who would one day be his subjects.

Beside the Archduke, on the back seat, sat his beloved wife Sophie. Despised as a parvenu by Franz Ferdinand’s aged uncle, the Emperor, the Viennese court treated Sophie as if she was staff. Out here in the sticks she got to play an archduchess properly. Even so, in the calendar in her head the date June 28 rankled.

On this day in 1900 her husband had been forced by the Imperial court to take a morganatic oath, which excluded their children from any claim to the throne.

Sophie pulled down the bonnet on her head. There was a slight breeze. She tucked a bouquet of blood red roses into her sash.

At exactly 10am the convoy of cars containing the royal party turned out of the barracks’ yard. Cannon boomed a “24-fold salute”. Soon the royal cavalcade reached the town’s main boulevard, the Appel Quai, flanked by buildings on one side and the Miljacka on the other, although at this time of year the river was barely a trickle. The s*n’s rays bounced blindingly off the Ottoman minarets on the skyline.

http://www.express.co.uk/news/wor...arted-the-Great-War-100-years-ago
Alice

The friends who fought and died together

While the miners were working underground a table was placed at the entrance of Houghton Main colliery. Behind it sat an Army recruiting officer and as the men emerged blinking into the light they were asked to sign up and go to war. They needed little persuasion and scores put pen to paper that day in Barnsley in August 1914, becoming brothers in arms.

The miners and other workers from the Yorkshire town were lured by the offer of regular pay, three meals a day and the adventure of a lifetime with their best mates. Few wanted to miss out on the scrap against the Hun and in any case it was being predicted that it would be over by Christmas.

Throughout the land there were similar scenes in market squares, at factories and outside football grounds. The idea of encouraging brothers, neighbours and work colleagues to fight side by side helped swell the ranks of the Army by 350,000 in the first few months of the First World War. The term Pals Battalion was coined to describe these forces of likeminded men and on the busiest single day 33,000 new soldiers enlisted.

Liverpool, which provided four such battalions, was the first to answer the call and the idea captured the imagination of the nation. The recruitment drive, in response to Lord Kitchener's rallying cries of "Your country needs you" and "Join your country's army", was a huge success.

The story of the Pals Battalions is told in an Imperial War Museum North exhibition and an ITV documentary tomorrow.

http://www.express.co.uk/news/wor...ends-who-fought-and-died-together
Alice

The battle to feed Tommy: New exhibition looks at the diet of a WW1 soldier

They say an army marches on its stomach, so feeding the two million men who were in the trenches at the height of the First World War was some task. It was a great achievement that in the entire conflict not one British soldier starved to death.

Yet no one should think that the Tommies enjoyed the food that was served up by the military. According to the wags on the frontline, the biggest threat to life was not German bullets but the appalling rations.

Most despised was Maconochie, named after the company in Aberdeen that made this concoction of barely recognisable chunks of fatty meat and vegetables in thin gravy.

When served hot, as per the instructions on the tin, it was said to be barely edible. Eaten cold for days on end in the trenches, where a warm meal was usually no more than a fantasy, it was said to be disgusting.

It was the stated aim of the British Army that each soldier should consume 4,000 calories a day. At the frontline, where conditions were frequently appalling, daily rations comprised 9oz of tinned meat (today it would be known as corned beef but during the First World War it was called bully beef) or the hated Maconochie.

Additionally the men received biscuits (made from salt, flour and water and likened by the long-suffering troops to dog biscuits). They were produced under government contract by Huntley & Palmers, which in 1914 was the world's largest biscuit manufacturer. The notoriously hard biscuits could crack teeth if they were not first soaked in tea or water.

Other rations included cheese, tea, jam, sugar, salt and condensed milk.

http://www.express.co.uk/news/wor...d-Tommy-The-diet-of-a-WW1-soldier
MOJO

As bad as it sounds, I'm sure the germans would have appreciated those rations, especially towards the latter part of the war, when the british blockade, really started to bite!
MOJO

Some fascinating pic's of various WW1 soldiers, which were discovered in a French attic! They're attempting to identify as many as they can!

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/a...ghNQW2LJhx1SsX0t/the-lost-tommies

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